Peripheral Hypertonic Saline
There are still pharmacies that believe that 3% Hypertonic Saline can only be given through a central line. The evidence would go against this assertion:
- Brenkert TE et al. Intravenous Hypertonic Saline Use in the Pediatric Emergency Department (Pediatr Emer Care 2013;29: 71Y73)
- Bulger, Eileen M, Susanne May, Karen J Brasel, Martin Schreiber, Jeffrey D Kerby, Samuel A Tisherman, Craig Newgard, et al. 2010. Out-of-hospital hypertonic resuscitation following severe traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, no. 13 ( 6). doi:10.1001/jama.2010.1405. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20924011.
- Bulger, Eileen M, Susanne May, Jeffery D Kerby, Scott Emerson, Ian G Stiell, Martin A Schreiber, Karen J Brasel, et al. 2011. Out-of-hospital hypertonic resuscitation after traumatic hypovolemic shock: a randomized, placebo controlled trial. Annals of surgery, no. 3. doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181fcdb22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21178763.
- Cooper, D James, Paul S Myles, Francis T McDermott, Lynette J Murray, John Laidlaw, Gregory Cooper, Ann B Tremayne, Stephen S Bernard, and Jennie Ponsford. 2004. Prehospital hypertonic saline resuscitation of patients with hypotension and severe traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, no. 11 ( 17). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15026402.
- Dubick, M A, and C E Wade. 1994. A review of the efficacy and safety of 7.5% NaCl/6% dextran 70 in experimental animals and in humans. The Journal of trauma, no. 3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7511708.
- Hands, R, J W Holcroft, P R Perron, and G C Kramer. 1988. Comparison of peripheral and central infusions of 7.5% NaCl/6% dextran 70. Surgery, no. 6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2453936.
- Marko, Nicholas F. 2012. Hyperosmolar therapy for intracranial hypertension: time to dispel antiquated myths. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, no. 5 ( 1). doi:10.1164/rccm.201109-1698ED. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22383562.
- Mattox, K L, P A Maningas, E E Moore, J R Mateer, J A Marx, C Aprahamian, J M Burch, and P E Pepe. 1991. Prehospital hypertonic saline/dextran infusion for post-traumatic hypotension. The U.S.A. Multicenter Trial. Annals of surgery, no. 5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1708984.
- Sood L et al. Hypertonic Saline and Desmopressin: A Simple Strategy for Safe Correction of Severe Hyponatremia (Am J Kidney Dis. 61(4):571-578)
- Timmer, J G, and H G Schipper. 1991. Peripheral venous nutrition: the equal relevance of volume load and osmolarity in relation to phlebitis. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland), no. 2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16839898.
If they ask for a Pharmaceutical Reference, give them this one:
AHFS Drug Information 2008
(all of the following are PMID #s)
i am mostly certain all of them are a repeat of the above list
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