The Airway Moratorium is Over!
In this podcast I talk about how not to kill the shocked/hypotensive patient in the peri-intubation. I gave this talk at SMACC 2013.
This lecture is part of the Laryngoscope as a Murder Weapon Series:
Eleni Salakidou's SmaccBYTE Entry
Nickson's Hierarchy of Resus Airway Needs
Best Review Article
STC Review Article
Curr Anesthesiol Rep 2014;4:225
Hypotension in the peri-intubation is bad and is a source of mortality
Hemodynamically unstable or on pressors prior to intubation is the biggest factor assoc. with death and complications. (Schwartz et al. Anesthesiology 1995;82:367)
Heffner et al. J Crit Care 2012 Aug;27(4):417
Factors associated with the occurrence of cardiac arrest after emergency tracheal intubation in the emergency department. (PMID 25402500)
Etomidate is probably safe in moderately shocked patients (Acad Emerg Med 2006;13:378)
Etomidate can definitely drop Blood Pressure (Crit Care 2012;16:R224)
Ketamine given to patients with horrible ejection fractions (Thangathurai et al.; Anesth 1988;69(3a):A79), in OR anesthetized pts (Prakt Anaesth. 1976 Dec;11(6):397-404) and In-Vitro human-tissue studies show Ketamine to be least cardio-depressant (Anesthesiology 1996;84:397). Another anesthesia study showed no drop from initial values after large and repeated doses (Br J Anaesth 1976;48:1071)
Best study, reasonable doses (CCM 1983;11(9):730) showed excellent stability
A further anesthesia study (Anesth and Analg 1980;58(5):355) 1/12 patients dropped HR with no effect on CI.
Cats did fine (Canad Anesth Soc J 1975;22(3):339). However if you give 10-100-fold doses to canine heart tissue then maybe (J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1986;8:414) and (Anesthesiology 1992;76:564), in the latter, dogs got infusions at 25-100 mg/kg/hr.
Case report of 2 arrests post-ketamine (J Inten Care Med 2012; Dewhirst et al.)
Ketamine in ICP (Emerg med australia 2006;18(1):37-44)
Two RCTs of etomidate vs. ketamine showed both are equally hemodynamically stable, but this was full dose ketamine (Am J Emerg Med 2013;31:1124 and Lancet. 2009 Jul 25;374(9686):293-300). Middle dose may be even better.
Anesth Analg. 2000 Jan;90(1):175-9.