EMCrit Podcast 38 – The ED Critical Care Dirty Dozen for 2010

Here are my 12 favorite ED Critical Care things for 2010…the EMCrit Dirty Dozen:

12. SmartEM by David Newman and Ashley Shreves

11. The Poison Review by Leon Gussow

10. Academic Life in Emergency Medicine by Michelle Lin

9. Zdoggmd–the funniest internist I have ever come across

8. Emergency Medicine Cases Podcast by Anton Helman

7. One Night in the ED, an incredible radiology blog for EM folks by a radiologist, Daniel Cornfeld

6. Steve Smith’s EKG Blog-even the cardiologists are not giving the same amount of detail as you will find here

5. Resus.me by Cliff Reid

4. EM:RAP by med ed hero, Mel Herbert

3. Ercast by my friend, Rob Orman

2. the Life in the Fast Lane Blog headed up by the amazing Mike Cadogan and Chris Nickson

1. Well for #1, you are just going to have to listen

Want more Best of?

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EMCrit Podcast 35 – Extubation in the ED

In this podcast, I discuss extubating patients in the ED. Specifically, I deal with patients who have only been intubated for a few hours in distinction to extubation of the patient who has been lingering in your ED for 2-3 days. The best patients for this short-term extubation are those intox folks with a low GCS and signs of trauma, overdoses, or endoscopy cases.

My approach is outlined in this article; click on the link for the full text:

Weingart SD, Menaker J, et al. Trauma Patients Can Safely Be Extubated in the Emergency Department. J Emerg Med. 2009 Aug 22. [Epub ahead of print]

Here are the steps from the article:

Photo by EddieB55

Update: George Douros has written another excellent guideline for ED extubation.

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EMCrit Podcast 18 – The Infamous Awake Intubation Video

This post marks the return of the Awake Intubation Video. If you’ve seen it, we will have a brand new post early next week. If you haven’t, well you are in for a treat:

Awake Intubation can save your butt!

It requires forethought and humility–you must be able to say to yourself, “I am not sure I will be able to successfully intubate this patient.” However, the payoff for this thought process is enormous. You can attempt an intubation on a difficult airway with very few downsides. If you get it, you look like a star, if you don’t you have not made the situation worse.

Two of my critical care resident specialists, Raghu Seethala and Xun Zhong, volunteered to intubate each other awake. The purpose of this was to let them gain experience, understand what their patients would feel during the procedure, and to prove that awake intubation can be done without complicated nerve block injections or fragile equipment, such as a bronchoscope.

Click Here to Download the Video

Look for this area in the lower right of the screen

Here is the procedure for ED Awake Intubation–EMCrit Style:

DRY THEM OUT & PRETREAT GAG(Do All)

If you can give it early 10-15 min before topicalizing, it will be most effective.

  • Glycopyrolate: 0.2 mg IVP (No central effects – does not cross BBB. You can use atropine, but more side effects are possible)
  • Suction and then pad mouth dry with gauze – you want the mouth very dry!
  • Adminster Odansetron 4mg IV to blunt the gag-reflex

TOPICALIZE (Do All)

  • 5 cc of 4% lidocaine nebulized @ 5 liters per min
  • Gargle with viscous lidocaine (4% best, 2% ok). Place a blob (~3 cc) on a tongue depressor, put it in the back of the throat and have the patient gargle and then spit
  • Spray the epiglottis, cords, and trachea with 4% lidocaine (3 cc) in a Mucosal Atomizer Device (MAD). The patient will cough during this spraying, wear eye/face protection
  • Have another syringe loaded with 4% lidocaine to spray with during the procedure

Note: the systemic and pulmonary absorption from this method is quite low. The only place to watch out is spraying the trachea. I would not spray more than 2-3 cc down the ol’ windpipe.

SEDATE (Choose one!)

  • Ketamine and propofol in the same syringe makes Ketofol. The classic mix is 50 mg of ketamine to make 5 cc and 50 mg of propofol to make 5 cc. Put these both in a 10 cc syringe and shake. Depending on the patient’s hemodynamics, I sometimes will use more ketamine (75% instead of 50%). Give 1-2 cc every minute until you have the patient relaxed, but still breathing and arousable.
  • Ketamine alone also works just fine. Start with 20 mg and give 10 mg every minute or so.
  • If you have it, Dexmedetomidine also works very well as long as your patient is not bradycardic.
  • If you have neither of these 2 mg of midazolam will do just fine.
  • Preoxygenate with NRB

  • Optimally position (ear to sternal notch) with the head tilted all the way back

  • Restrain both arms with soft restraints to prevent the “grabbies”

  • Switch to nasal cannula

  • INTUBATE with Fiberoptic laryngoscope and bougie

  • If the patient coughs or is uncomfortable after placing the bougie through the cords, push more med from the ketofol syringe.

  • Thread  the tube over the bougie with the laryngoscope still in the mouth

  • Confirm tube placement

That’s all for this week

For more info on awake ED intubation, you can view a complete lecture here

Thanks to Raghu and Xun for risking their singing careers and to Jimmy & Anita for technical support. *
The opinions on this site and in the video represent the author’s and not the opinions or policies of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine or Elmhurst Hospital Center. It is not my intention to provide specific medical advice for any individual patient. Please confirm anything on this video with your own clinical judgment and the policies and procedures of your institution. This video is for education purposes only; it does not represent a standard of care or clinical advice.

EMCrit Podcast 6 – Push-Dose Pressors

Finally a non-intubation topic!

Bolus dose pressors and inotropes have been used by the anesthesiologists for decades, but they have not penetrated into standard emergency medicine practice. I don’t know why. They are the perfect solution to short-lived hypotension, e.g. post-intubation or during sedation.

They also can act as a bridge to drip pressors while they are being mixed or while a central line is being placed.

Click Here for printable sheet with mixing instructions

Epinephrine

Do not give cardiac arrest doses (1 mg) to patients with a pulse

Has alpha and beta-1/2 effects so it is an inopressor

Onset-1 minute

Duration-5-10 minutes

Mixing Instructions:

Take a 10 ml syringe with 9 ml of normal saline

Into this syringe, draw up 1 ml of epinephrine from the cardiac amp (amp contains Epinephrine 100 mcg/ml)

Now you have 10 mls of Epinephrine 10 mcg/ml

Dose:

0.5-2 ml every 2-5 minutes (5-20  mcg)

No extravasation worries!

Mixing Video:

Phenylephrine

Phenyl as a bolus dose is clean, quick, and never causes trouble. But…

It is pure alpha, so no intrinsic inotropy; it may increase coronary perfusion which can improve cardiac output. I only use this in tachycardic patients.

Onset-1 minute

Duration- 20 minutes

Mixing Instructions:

Take a 3 ml syringe and draw up 1 ml of phenylephrine from the vial (vial contains phenylephrine 10 mg/ml)

Inject this into a 100 ml bag of NS

Now you have 100 mls of phenylephrine 100 mcg/ml

Draw up some into a syringe; each ml in the syringe is 100 mcg

Dose:

0.5-2 ml every 2-5 minutes (50-200 mcg)

No extravasation worries!

Mixing Video:

Ephedrine

I don’t use this one, listen to the podcast to hear why. I put it here solely for the anesthesiologists on the blog.

Onset-Near Instant

Duration-1 hour

Mixing Instructions:

Take a 10 ml syringe with 9 ml of normal saline

Into this syringe, draw up 1 ml of ephedrine from the vial (vial contains Ephedrine 50 mg/ml)

Now you have 10 mls of Ephedrine 5 mg/ml

Dose:

1-2 ml every 2-5 minutes (5-10 mg)

No extravasation worries!

Additional Video of a Real Patient

By Larry Mellick’s Crew

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EMCrit Podcast 4 – Awake Intubation

The video for this lecture is up at this link.

Awake intubation can save your butt.

It requires forethought and humility–you must be able to say to yourself, “I am not sure I will be able to successfully intubate this patient.” However, the payoff for this thought process is enormous. You can try an intubation in the ED with very few downsides. If you get it, you look like a star, if you don’t you have not made the situation worse.

Two of my critical care resident specialists, Raghu Seethala and Xun Zhong, volunteered to intubate each other awake. The purpose of this was to let them gain experience, understand what their patients would feel during the procedure, and to prove that awake intubation can be done without complicated nerve block injections or fragile equipment, such as a bronchoscope.

Here is the procedure for ED Awake Intubation–EMCrit Style:

DRY THEM OUT (Do All)

If you can give it early 10-15 min before topicalizing, it will be most effective.

  • Glycopyrolate: 0.2 mg IVP (No central effects – does not cross BBB. You can use atropine, but more side effects are possible)
  • Suction and then pad mouth dry with gauze – you want the mouth very dry!

TOPICALIZE (Do All)

  • 5 cc of 4% lidocaine nebulized @ 5 liters per min
  • Gargle with viscous lidocaine (4% best, 2% ok). Place a blob (~3 cc) on a tongue depressor, put it in the back of the throat and have the patient gargle and then spit
  • Spray the epiglottis, cords, and trachea with 4% lidocaine (3 cc) in a Mucosal Atomizer Device (MAD). The patient will cough during this spraying, wear eye/face protection
  • Have another syringe loaded with 4% lidocaine to spray with during the procedure

Note: the systemic and pulmonary absorption from this method is quite low. The only place to watch out is spraying the trachea. I would not spray more than 2-3 cc down the ol’ windpipe.

SEDATE (Choose one!)

  • Ketamine and propofol in the same syringe makes Ketofol. The classic mix is 50 mg of ketamine to make 5 cc and 50 mg of propofol to make 5 cc. Put these both in a 10 cc syringe and shake. Depending on the patient’s hemodynamics, I sometimes will use more ketamine (75% instead of 50%). Give 1-2 cc every minute until you have the patient relaxed, but still breathing and arousable.
  • Ketamine alone also works just fine. Start with 20 mg and give 10 mg every minute or so.
  • If you have it, Dexmedetomidine also works very well as long as your patient is not bradycardic.
  • If you have neither of these 2 mg of midazolam will do just fine.
  • Preoxygenate with NRB

  • Optimally position (ear to sternal notch) with the head tilted all the way back

  • Restrain both arms with soft restraints to prevent the “grabbies”

  • Switch to nasal cannula

  • INTUBATE with Fiberoptic laryngoscope and bougie

  • If the patient coughs or is uncomfortable after placing the bougie through the cords, push the remainder of the ketofol syringe.

  • Thread  the tube over the bougie with the laryngoscope still in the mouth

  • Confirm tube placement

That’s all for this week

For more info on awake ED intubation, you can view a complete lecture here

Thanks to Raghu and Xun for risking their singing careers and to Jimmy & Anita for technical support. *
The opinions on this site and in the video represent the author’s and not the opinions or policies of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine or Elmhurst Hospital Center. It is not my intention to provide specific medical advice for any individual patient. Please confirm anything on this video with your own clinical judgment and the policies and procedures of your institution. This video is for education purposes only; it does not represent a standard of care or clinical advice.
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