From the SCCM EM Section with my friends Tim Ellender and Lil Emlet. If yo are thinking of going for critical care fellowship, check it out ASAP
Since we were talking about Na-channels in the last podcast, Sean Smith suggested this video:
MDCalc is where I go when I need to remember a clinical scoring system. I was thus quite pleased to find one of the scores I use every shift appear on the site. The LLS score is how I determine the need for many interventions, but especially to decide who needs massive transfusion.
Cliff Reid adds to the MotR lexicon with Chicken Bombs and Muppet Factors
This podcast was originally posted on the Practical Evidence Podcast
The 2012 SSC Guidelines were just published and I saw the preview in Puerto Rico
2012 Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines
See the Guidelines at (CCM 2013;41(2):580)
Diagnosis of Sepsis
Diagnosis of Severe Sepsis
The New Bundles
A. Initial Resuscitation
- Protocolized, quantitative resuscitation of patients with sepsis- induced tissue hypoperfusion (defined in this document as hypotension persisting after initial fluid challenge or blood lactate concentration ? 4 mmol/L). Goals during the first 6 hrs of resuscitation:
- Central venous pressure 8–12 mm Hg
- Mean arterial pressure (MAP) ? 65 mm Hg
- Urine output ? 0.5 mL/kg/hr
- Central venous (superior vena cava) or mixed venous oxygen saturation 70% or 65%, respectively (grade 1C).
- In patients with elevated lactate levels targeting resuscitation to normalize lactate (grade 2C).
B. Screening for Sepsis and Performance Improvement
- Routine screening of potentially infected seriously ill patients for severe sepsis to allow earlier implementation of therapy (grade 1C).
- Hospital–based performance improvement efforts in severe sepsis (UG).
- Cultures as clinically appropriate before antimicrobial therapy if no significant delay (> 45 mins) in the start of antimicrobial(s) (grade 1C). At least 2 sets of blood cultures (both aerobic and anaerobic bottles) be obtained before antimicrobial therapy with at least 1 drawn percutaneously and 1 drawn through each vascular access device, unless the device was recently (<48 hrs) inserted (grade 1C).
- Use of the 1,3 beta-D-glucan assay (grade 2B), mannan and anti-mannan antibody assays (2C), if available and invasive candidiasis is in differential diagnosis of cause of infection.
- Imaging studies performed promptly to confirm a potential source of infection (UG).
D. Antimicrobial Therapy
- Administration of effective intravenous antimicrobials within the first hour of recognition of septic shock (grade 1B) and severe sepsis without septic shock (grade 1C) as the goal of therapy.
- Initial empiric anti-infective therapy of one or more drugs that have activity against all likely pathogens (bacterial and/or fungal or viral) and that penetrate in adequate concentrations into tissues presumed to be the source of sepsis (grade 1B). Antimicrobial regimen should be reassessed daily for potential deescalation (grade 1B).
- Use of low procalcitonin levels or similar biomarkers to assist the clinician in the discontinuation of empiric antibiotics in patients who initially appeared septic, but have no subsequent evidence of infection (grade 2C).
- Combination empirical therapy for neutropenic patients with severe sepsis (grade 2B) and for patients with difficult-to-treat, multidrugresistant bacterial pathogens such as Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas spp. (grade 2B). For patients with severe infections associated with respiratory failure and septic shock, combination therapy with an extended spectrum beta-lactam and either an aminoglycoside or a fluoroquinolone is for P. aeruginosa bacteremia (grade 2B). A combination of beta-lactam and macrolide for patients with septic shock from bacteremic Streptococcus pneumoniae infections (grade 2B). Empiric combination therapy should not be administered for more than 3–5 days. De-escalation to the most appropriate single therapy should be performed as soon as the susceptibility profile is known (grade 2B).
- Duration of therapy typically 7–10 days; longer courses may be appropriate in patients who have a slow clinical response, undrainable foci of infection, bacteremia with S. aureus; some fungal and viral infections or immunologic deficiencies, including neutropenia (grade 2C).
- Antiviral therapy initiated as early as possible in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock of viral origin (grade 2C).
- Antimicrobial agents should not be used in patients with severe inflammatory states determined to be of noninfectious cause (UG).
E. Source Control
- A specific anatomical diagnosis of infection requiring consideration for emergent source control be sought and diagnosed or excluded as rapidly as possible, and intervention be undertaken for source control within the first 12 hr after the diagnosis is made, if feasible (grade 1C).
- When infected peripancreatic necrosis is identified as a potential source of infection, definitive intervention is best delayed until adequate demarcation of viable and nonviable tissues has occurred (grade 2B).
- When source control in a severely septic patient is required, the effective intervention associated with the least physiologic insult should be used (eg, percutaneous rather than surgical drainage of an abscess) (UG).
- If intravascular access devices are a possible source of severe sepsis or septic shock, they should be removed promptly after other vascular access has been established (UG).
F. Infection Prevention
- Selective oral decontamination and selective digestive decontamination should be introduced and investigated as a method to reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia; This infection control measure can then be instituted in health care settings and regions where this methodology is found to be effective (grade 2B).
- Oral chlorhexidine gluconate be used as a form of oropharyngeal decontamination to reduce the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia in ICU patients with severe sepsis (grade 2B).
G. Fluid Therapy of Severe Sepsis
- Crystalloids as the initial fluid of choice in the resuscitation of severe sepsis and septic shock (grade 1B).
- Against the use of hydroxyethyl starches for fluid resuscitation of severe sepsis and septic shock (grade 1B).
- Albumin in the fluid resuscitation of severe sepsis and septic shock when patients require substantial amounts of crystalloids (grade 2C).
- Initial fluid challenge in patients with sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion with suspicion of hypovolemia to achieve a minimum of 30 mL/kg of crystalloids (a portion of this may be albumin equivalent). More rapid administration and greater amounts of fluid may be needed in some patients (grade 1C).
- Fluid challenge technique be applied wherein fluid administration is continued as long as there is hemodynamic improvement either based on dynamic (eg, change in pulse pressure, stroke volume variation) or static (eg, arterial pressure, heart rate) variables (UG).
- Vasopressor therapy initially to target a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 65 mm Hg (grade 1C).
- Norepinephrine as the first choice vasopressor (grade 1B).
- Epinephrine (added to and potentially substituted for norepinephrine) when an additional agent is needed to maintain adequate blood pressure (grade 2B).
- Vasopressin 0.03 units/minute can be added to norepinephrine (NE) with intent of either raising MAP or decreasing NE dosage (UG).
- Low dose vasopressin is not recommended as the single initial vasopressor for treatment of sepsis-induced hypotension and vasopressin doses higher than 0.03–0.04 units/minute should be reserved for salvage therapy (failure to achieve adequate MAP with other vasopressor agents) (UG).
- Dopamine as an alternative vasopressor agent to norepinephrine only in highly selected patients (eg, patients with low risk of tachyarrhythmias and absolute or relative bradycardia) (grade 2C).
- Phenylephrine is not recommended in the treatment of septic shock except in circumstances where (a) norepinephrine is associated with serious arrhythmias, (b) cardiac output is known to be high and blood pressure persistently low or (c) as salvage therapy when combined inotrope/vasopressor drugs and low dose vasopressin have failed to achieve MAP target (grade 1C).
- Low-dose dopamine should not be used for renal protection (grade 1A).
- All patients requiring vasopressors have an arterial catheter placed as soon as practical if resources are available (UG).
I. Inotropic Therapy
- A trial of dobutamine infusion up to 20 micrograms/kg/min be administered or added to vasopressor (if in use) in the presence of (a) myocardial dysfunction as suggested by elevated cardiac filling pressures and low cardiac output, or (b) ongoing signs of hypoperfusion, despite achieving adequate intravascular volume and adequate MAP (grade 1C).
- Not using a strategy to increase cardiac index to predetermined supranormal levels (grade 1B).
- Not using intravenous hydrocortisone to treat adult septic shock patients if adequate fluid resuscitation and vasopressor therapy are able to restore hemodynamic stability (see goals for Initial Resuscitation). In case this is not achievable, we suggest intravenous hydrocortisone alone at a dose of 200 mg per day (grade 2C).
- Not using the ACTH stimulation test to identify adults with septic shock who should receive hydrocortisone (grade 2B).
- In treated patients hydrocortisone tapered when vasopressors are no longer required (grade 2D).
- Corticosteroids not be administered for the treatment of sepsis in the absence of shock (grade 1D).
- When hydrocortisone is given, use continuous flow (grade 2D).
K. Blood Product Administration
- Once tissue hypoperfusion has resolved and in the absence of extenuating circumstances, such as myocardial ischemia, severe hypoxemia, acute hemorrhage, or ischemic heart disease, we recommend that red blood cell transfusion occur only when hemoglobin concentration decreases to <7.0 g/dL to target a hemoglobin concentration of 7.0 –9.0 g/dL in adults (grade 1B).
- Not using erythropoietin as a specific treatment of anemia associated with severe sepsis (grade 1B).
- Fresh frozen plasma not be used to correct laboratory clotting abnormalities in the absence of bleeding or planned invasive procedures (grade 2D).
- Not using antithrombin for the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock (grade 1B).
- In patients with severe sepsis, administer platelets prophylactically when counts are <10,000/mm3 (10 x 109/L) in the absence of apparent bleeding. We suggest prophylactic platelet transfusion when counts are < 20,000/mm3 (20 x 109/L) if the patient has a significant risk of bleeding. Higher platelet counts (?50,000/mm3 [50 x 109/L]) are advised for active bleeding, surgery, or invasive procedures (grade 2D).
- Not using intravenous immunoglobulins in adult patients with severe sepsis or septic shock (grade 2B).
- Not using intravenous selenium for the treatment of severe sepsis (grade 2C).
N. History of Recommendations Regarding Use of Recombinant Activated Protein C (rhAPC)
A history of the evolution of SSC recommendations as to rhAPC (no longer available) is provided.
O. Mechanical Ventilation of Sepsis-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
- Target a tidal volume of 6 mL/kg predicted body weight in patients with sepsis-induced ARDS (grade 1A vs. 12 mL/kg).
- Plateau pressures be measured in patients with ARDS and initial upper limit goal for plateau pressures in a passively inflated lung be ?30 cm H2O (grade 1B).
- Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) be applied to avoid alveolar collapse at end expiration (atelectotrauma) (grade 1B).
- Strategies based on higher rather than lower levels of PEEP be used for patients with sepsis- induced moderate or severe ARDS (grade 2C).
- Recruitment maneuvers be used in sepsis patients with severe refractory hypoxemia (grade 2C).
- Prone positioning be used in sepsis-induced ARDS patients with a Pao2/Fio2 ratio ? 100 mm Hg in facilities that have experience with such practices (grade 2B).
- That mechanically ventilated sepsis patients be maintained with the head of the bed elevated to 30–45 degrees to limit aspiration risk and to prevent the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (grade 1B).
- That noninvasive mask ventilation (NIV) be used in that minority of sepsis-induced ARDS patients in whom the benefits of NIV have been carefully considered and are thought to outweigh the risks (grade 2B).
- That a weaning protocol be in place and that mechanically ventilated patients with severe sepsis undergo spontaneous breathing trials regularly to evaluate the ability to discontinue mechanical ventilation when they satisfy the following criteria: a) arousable; b) hemodynamically stable (without vasopressor agents); c) no new potentially serious conditions; d) low ventilatory and end-expiratory pressure requirements; and e) low Fio2 requirements which can be met safely delivered with a face mask or nasal cannula. If the spontaneous breathing trial is successful, consideration should be given for extubation (grade 1A).
- Against the routine use of the pulmonary artery catheter for patients with sepsis-induced ARDS (grade 1A).
- A conservative rather than liberal fluid strategy for patients with established sepsis-induced ARDS who do not have evidence of tissue hypoperfusion (grade 1C).
- In the absence of specific indications such as bronchospasm, not using beta 2-agonists for treatment of sepsis-induced ARDS (grade 1B).
P. Sedation, Analgesia, and Neuromuscular Blockade in Sepsis
- Continuous or intermittent sedation be minimized in mechanically ventilated sepsis patients, targeting specific titration endpoints (grade 1B).
- Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) be avoided if possible in the septic patient without ARDS due to the risk of prolonged neuromuscular blockade following discontinuation. If NMBAs must be maintained, either intermittent bolus as required or continuous infusion with train-of-four monitoring of the depth of blockade should be used (grade 1C).
- A short course of NMBA of not greater than 48 hours for patients with early sepsis-induced ARDS and a Pao2/Fio2 < 150 mm Hg (grade 2C).
Q. Glucose Control
- A protocolized approach to blood glucose management in ICU patients with severe sepsis commencing insulin dosing when 2 consecutive blood glucose levels are >180 mg/dL. This protocolized approach should target an upper blood glucose ?180 mg/dL rather than an upper target blood glucose ? 110 mg/dL (grade 1A).
- Blood glucose values be monitored every 1–2 hrs until glucose values and insulin infusion rates are stable and then every 4 hrs thereafter (grade 1C).
- Glucose levels obtained with point-of-care testing of capillary blood be interpreted with caution, as such measurements may not accurately estimate arterial blood or plasma glucose values (UG).
R. Renal Replacement Therapy
- Continuous renal replacement therapies and intermittent hemodialysis are equivalent in patients with severe sepsis and acute renal failure (grade 2B).
- Use continuous therapies to facilitate management of fluid balance in hemodynamically unstable septic patients (grade 2D).
S. Bicarbonate Therapy
- Not using sodium bicarbonate therapy for the purpose of improving hemodynamics or reducing vasopressor requirements in patients with hypoperfusion-induced lactic acidemia with pH ?7.15 (grade 2B).
T. Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis
- Patients with severe sepsis receive daily pharmacoprophylaxis against venous thromboembolism (VTE) (grade 1B). This should be accomplished with daily subcutaneous low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (grade 1B versus twice daily UFH, grade 2C versus three times daily UFH). If creatinine clearance is <30 mL/min, use dalteparin (grade 1A) or another form of LMWH that has a low degree of renal metabolism (grade 2C) or UFH (grade 1A).
- Patients with severe sepsis be treated with a combination of pharmacologic therapy and intermittent pneumatic compression devices whenever possible (grade 2C).
- Septic patients who have a contraindication for heparin use (eg, thrombocytopenia, severe coagulopathy, active bleeding, recent intracerebral hemorrhage) not receive pharmacoprophylaxis (grade 1B), but receive mechanical prophylactic treatment, such as graduated compression stockings or intermittent compression devices (grade 2C), unless contraindicated. When the risk decreases start pharmacoprophylaxis (grade 2C).
U. Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis
- Stress ulcer prophylaxis using H2 blocker or proton pump inhibitor be given to patients with severe sepsis/septic shock who have bleeding risk factors (grade 1B).
- When stress ulcer prophylaxis is used, proton pump inhibitors rather than H2RA (grade 2D)
- Patients without risk factors do not receive prophylaxis (grade 2B).
- Administer oral or enteral (if necessary) feedings, as tolerated, rather than either complete fasting or provision of only intravenous glucose within the first 48 hours after a diagnosis of severe sepsis/septic shock (grade 2C).
- Avoid mandatory full caloric feeding in the first week but rather suggest low dose feeding (eg, up to 500 calories per day), advancing only as tolerated (grade 2B).
- Use intravenous glucose and enteral nutrition rather than total parenteral nutrition (TPN) alone or parenteral nutrition in conjunction with enteral feeding in the first 7 days after a diagnosis of severe sepsis/septic shock (grade 2B).
- Use nutrition with no specific immunomodulating supplementation rather than nutrition providing specific immunomodulating supplementation in patients with severe sepsis (grade 2C).
W. Setting Goals of Care
- Discuss goals of care and prognosis with patients and families (grade 1B).
- Incorporate goals of care into treatment and end-of-life care planning, utilizing palliative care principles where appropriate (grade 1B).
- Address goals of care as early as feasible, but no later than within 72 hours of ICU admission (grade 2C).
I received this message from Denis Colares:
Hi Scott, I’m an Emergency Medicine Resident from Brazil. Really love your podcast, thank you for all your help. Listen, I’ve watched your videos about central line placement and although they added a lot for my technique I still have a few questions. Having the U/S to guide the line placement is quite rare around here so the blind technique is standard. It’s very common to have to do a central line in a mechanically ventilated patient so I ask you: 1- regarding the IJV: do you increase the volume or the PEEP to enlarge the IVJ? I mean besides doing the Trendelenberg and the rest of the standard positioning? I found this paper: “Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2012 May;29(5):223-8. Effects of four different positive airway pressures on right internal jugular vein catheterisation” and I would really love to hear your opinion on this. 2- regarding the subclavian: do you disconnect the patient from the ventilator as you try to pass under the clavicle? I do exactly as you described in the video, usually don’t disconnect the patient, and have successfully done about 40 without a single complication but some people make a big deal out of this and tell me that I HAVE TO disconnect the patient otherwise the risk of a pneumothorax is greater… tell me, cause I couldn’t find anything on pubmed, is there any evidence on this? The ASA guideline simple don’t mention this issue! Sorry about the long text and really hope you can help me here. Thanks.
1. I don’t bother increasing PEEP for IJ placement, though in addition to the article you mention there are a bunch more saying the same thing in the anesthesia literature. I put my patients in Trend. and they all have at least 5 of PEEP. You can get it a bit bigger by going to 10 of PEEP, but the increase has never seemed worth it (a 15% increase is a small increase in actual vessel diameter).
2. I too have heard that stuff on subclavian patients. It seems like an old wives tale or medical myth. We routinely placed subclavians in patients on APRV with pHighs of 40 or 50 cm and never thought twice about it. Unless someone shows me GOOD evidence that this actual prevents pneumothoraces, I am not disconnecting my patients (the more PEEP they are on the more deleterious any vent disconnections).
Put any additional questions in the comments.
Jim DuCanto just sent two OR videos with intubations using a new bougie made to keep in your pocket or small kits: the pocket bougie by Bomimed.
In the video above, Jim is using a Glidescope with the new bougie. He also demonstrates his crankshaft maneuver.
In this second video, Jim is using a Mac blade with the bougie in a patient with high BMI (125 kg).
Rebecca Engelman, a critical care paramedic and soon to be PA, sent the great tips below on how to secure an IO in a peds patient. She should know because on the equipment securing hierarchy, methods that work in the filed are tops. It goes: things that work in the OR to things that work in the ICU to things that work in the ED and ends with things that work in the eight floor walk-up apartment building or a transport chopper.
How to Place an IO
I’m a critical care paramedic and up until very recently I spend 95% of my time working in pediatric critical care transport.
Tibial IO in small peds (<10kg) can be tricky if you don’t do a lot of them. When everyone learned to insert EZIOs in adults, they were probably taught to drill until they felt a ‘pop’, then stop…then promptly forgot this direction and drilled until the hub of the catheter was resting on tissue. In adults, this usually doesn’t lead to problems due to the size of the medullary space. In small pediatric patients however, sinking the IO to the hub will result in the needle passing THROUGH the tibia. If this is not recognized upon insertion or upon fluid administration it can lead to the complications mentioned by others above.
Everything that I’m about to say is purely my opinion based on my experiences:
- Let someone who knows what they are doing put the EZIO in. We used to have a lot of problems with IO (recognized) failure until we stopped letting residents put them in and made it an attending and critical care paramedic only skill. (Some of our attendings didn’t even really belong on that list, that was just a politics thing.) We rarely had any issues after that. The point is, just like airway, if you don’t do it a lot in small kids, you probably aren’t going to be great at it.
- If you don’t put (not so) EZ-IOs into small kids a lot, consider using a manual IO. I personally think they are a lot harder to screw up. When I wasn’t working primarily in peds, I would use EZ-IO for adults and manual IOs for small kids (<10kg). I really like the Jamshidis because they have an adjustable flange so you can set the maximum depth.
- Once you get the IO in, flush vigouorously, look for an signs of infiltration, then SECURE THE HECK OUT OF IT. Any movement of the catheter increases the risk of infiltration. Be vigilant about checking for infiltration and checking distal perfusion.
- As Minh suggested, an IO is only a temporary solution. As soon as the patient is stable enough or has enough intravascular volume get a peripheral or central line in them as their status warrants.
- Some people have suggested that the proximal humerus might be a prefered site both for flow rates and patient comfort. I have no experience with this, but I wonder if, in peds, it might lead to a lower infiltration rate due to the larger medullary space.
How to Secure an IO
Here’s a link to some pictures I took this morning…
If you are using a Jamshidi or another kind of IO catheter with a flange that rests on the skin, you can start with a couple pieces of tape over the flange.
If you don’t have a flange, take a piece of tape about 4-5? long and split it lengthwise about halfway down. Place the unsplit part on the skin and wrap the split ends around the hub of the IO catheter. I do this three times, spaced equally around the hub. (In case it isn’t clear, the coffee cup in the pictures represents the patient’s leg and the sharpie is the IO catheter hub.)
If you want to use tegaderm, now would be the time to apply it.
The next step is to build up a bukly dressing around the hub of the IO catheter and distal end of the IV tubing. I use roller gauze/king but anything would work. (This is represented by Epi-pen trainers in the pictures.) Tape all of this down. If you can still see the hub, you haven’t used enough bulky dressing.
The next step might be the most important for keeping the IO in place over the next few hours. Tape down, TO THE PATIENT, the next 8-12? of IV tubing. Make sure all stopcocks and ports are accessible, but also make sure that there can be ABSOLOUTLEY NO tension put on the line.
Vidacare also makes a stabilizer for EZ-IO catheters. They look nice, but I don’t have any experience with these as they are a bit pricy. I would guess that they would need a bit of stabilization in addition to this device and they definitely need the IV tubing secured.
http://www.vidacare.com/EZ-IO/Products-Accessories.aspx (scroll down)
I hope this helps and I would love to hear if anyone has any other tips or tricks.
These comments were added
Minh Le Cong:
James DuCanto just emailed me with a guide to intubating through LMAs. My first question, of course, is can I share it with the listeners, so…
Here is the guide
Tim Ellender, EM Intensivist and all around cool guy just dropped his picks for the top EMCCM articles all trainees and attendings must read:
- Hébert PC, et al. A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial of transfusion requirements in critical care. Transfusion Requirements in Critical Care Investigators, Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. N Engl J Med. 1999 Feb 11;340(6):409-17. Erratum in: N Engl J Med 1999 Apr 1;340(13):1056.
- The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network. Ventilation with Lower Tidal Volumes as Compared with Traditional Tidal Volumes for Acute Lung Injury and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. N Engl J Med 2000; 342:1301-1308.
- Michard F, et al. Relation between respiratory changes in arterial pulse pressure and fluid responsiveness in septic patients with acute circulatory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000; 162:134-138.
- Rivers M, et al. Early Goal-Directed Therapy in the Treatment of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock. N Engl J Med 2001; 345(19): 1368-77.
- Bernard SA, et al. Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia. N Engl J Med. Feb 21 2002; 346(8):557-63.
- Hypothermia after Cardiac Arrest Study Group. Mild therapeutic hypothermia to improve the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. Feb 21 2002; 346(8):549-56.
- Annane D, et al. Effect of treatment with low doses of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone on mortality in patients with septic shock. JAMA 2002; 288:862-871.
- The SAFE Study Investigators. A Comparison of Albumin and Saline for Fluid Resuscitation in the Intensive Care Unit. N Engl J Med 2004; 350:2247-2256.
- Nguyen HB, et al. Early lactate clearance is associated with improved outcome in severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med 2004; 32:1637-42.
- Jones AE, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of immediate versus delayed goal-directed ultrasound to identify the cause of nontraumatic hypotension in emergency department patients. Crit Care Med 2004; 32:1703-8.
- Cremer OL, et al. Effect of intracranial pressure monitoring and targeted intensive care on functional outcome after severe head injury. Crit Care Med 2005; 33:2207–13.
- Kumar A, et al. Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock. Crit Care Med 2006; 34: 1589-1596.
- Marik PE, et al. Does central venous pressure predict fluid responsiveness? A systematic review of the literature and the tale of seven mares. Chest 2008; 134:172–178.
- Sprung CL, et al. Hydrocortisone therapy for patients with septic shock. N Engl J Med 2008; 358:111-124.
- Russell JA, et al. for the VASST Investigators. Vasopressin versus Norepinephrine Infusion in Patients with Septic Shock. N Engl J Med 2008; 358:877-887.
- De Backer D, et al. Comparison of dopamine and norepinephrine in the treatment of shock. N Engl J Med 2010; 362:779-789.
- CRASH-2 trial collaborators. Effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events, and blood transfusion in trauma patients with significant haemorrhage (CRASH-2): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2010; 376(9734):23-32.
- Kilgannon JH, et al. Association Between Arterial Hyperoxia Following Resuscitation From Cardiac Arrest and In-Hospital Mortality. JAMA 2010; 303:2165-2171.
- Jones AE, et al. Lactate Clearance vs Central Venous Oxygen Saturation as Goals of Early Sepsis Therapy: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2010;303(8):739-746.
- Perera P, et al. The RUSH exam: Rapid Ultrasound in SHock in the evaluation of the critically lll. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2010; 28(1):29-56.
- Vandromme MJ, et al. Identifying risk for massive transfusion in the relatively normotensive patient: utility of the prehospital shock index. J Trauma. 2011; 70(2):384-8.